Damage Control Systems
The ex-USS Shadwell is outfitted with all of
the DC systems and equipment that would be expected on a modern surface
combatant or submarine. The following provides an overview of the DC systems
that are currently available.
Damage Control Repair Stations
The ex-USS Shadwell has three designated damage control repair stations
(DCRS’s). Repair 2 and Repair 3 are located in and service the forward
surface ship test area and Repair 4 is located in and services the submarine
test area. Each DCRS has a designated Repair Locker that is outfitted
with standard U.S. Navy’s DC equipment, a Wire Free Communication
(WIFCOM) station, and a Damage Control System (DCS) computer work station.
Selected DC equipment is also distributed throughout the DCRS test areas
(i.e., portable smoke control equipment, portable fire extinguishers,
Oxygen Breathing Apparatus (OBA’s), Self-contained Breathing Apparatus
(SCBA’s), portable dewatering equipment, forcible entry tools and
personnel protection equipment such as fire fighting ensembles (FFE’s),
helmets, fire fighting boots, gloves and flash gear). A DC Central (DCC)
control station, which is used to receive and evaluate DC information
during "active" Fleet Doctrine Evaluation (FDE) tests, is located
on the port side of the 01 level between FR 47 and FR 50 (aft portion
of the Crew Mess). The DCC control station is also outfitted with an intelligent
Supervisory Control System (SCS) for displaying DC sensor information,
pre-hit/ damage predictions, video, automated decision aids, and for automatic
and remote control of various DC systems.
The ex-USS Shadwell fire main system consists of a 8.9-cm (3.5-in.) horizontal
loop main with two electric driven fire pumps. The fire main services
the distributed fireplugs located throughout the ship. A supplemental
test fire main is located in the forward test area with a configuration
similar to that of a DDG 51 Class ship. This fire main includes two 10.2-cm
(4-in.) offset mains on the port and starboard sides of the main and 2nd
decks. Cross connects are located at FR 12 and FR 23. The test fire main
is outfitted with seventeen isolation valves. Eight of these valves are
autonomous smart valves that enable an automated isolation response to
system damage. A LonWorks network is used to receive data from instruments
and control the valves and pumps.
Portable Fire Fighting Equipment
Fire main related fire fighting equipment and portable extinguishers are
located throughout the test areas. Fire main related fire fighting (or
boundary cooling) equipment includes fire plugs, 1.9-cm (0.75-in.) hose
reels, and 3.8-cm (1.5 in.) AFFF hose reels. Fire plugs (3.8-cm (1.5 in.))
are installed such that every part of the test areas can be serviced by
two fire plugs using no more than 30 m (100 ft) of fire hose from each
plug. The AFFF hose reels are positioned outside the 3rd deck entrance
to AMR No. 1 and the hold level entrance to the escape trunk, between
FR 27 and FR 28, for use in manual fire fighting activities in AMR No.
1. Portable fire extinguishers are also distributed throughout the test
areas and primarily consist of CO2, PKP and AFFF extinguishers.
Water Mist Suppression System
The ex-USS Shadwell is presently outfitted with two high-pressure (68-bar
(1000 psi)) water mist suppression systems. One of these systems (designated
as the Machinery Space Water Mist system) was installed in AMR No.1 and
MMR No. 1 as part of the developmental work for LPD 17. The second system
(designated as the forward water mist system) services the forward test
area on the main, 2nd and 3rd decks.
The Machinery Space water mist system consists of two zones with nozzles
in the overhead of the 4th deck and hold level. The water mist system
utilizes one electric driven pump that is rated for 833 lpm at 68 bar
(220 gpm at 1000 psi) and is located in the ex-USS Shadwell starboard engine
room, between FR 64 to 74 on the 4th deck. The system is controlled from
a console in the ex-USS Shadwell control room or from three local control
stations that are located on the 3rddeck entranceway to AMR No. 1, in
the Engineering Operating Control Station (EOCS), or on lower level of
the AMR escape trunk. The nozzles for the Machinery Space water mist system
are an open (deluge) type, that consist of a Spraying Systems Model 7N
nozzle body containing seven Model 1/4 LN orifice cap assemblies (orifice
cap and orifice insert).
The forward water mist system has been constructed using the sectional
loop architecture. A pump unit (consisting of multiple low flow pumps)
has been installed on the 4th deck at FR 16 and is also rated at 833 lpm
at 68-bar (220 gpm at 1000 psi). The pump system has the ability to adjust
continuously to meet a range of flow demands. The pump unit supplies water
to the mains that in turn feed branches of nozzles. An electrically actuated
solenoid valve that is connected to one of the two node rooms on the 2nd
deck, where a computer interface is established, controls each branch
group of nozzles. As with the Machinery Space water mist system, the forward
water mist system nozzles are an open (deluge) type nozzle.
The ship’s general heating, ventilation and air conditioning system
and direct current fans provide hotel ventilation service. The direct
current fans are also used for combustion air in some fire experiments.
There are three additional ventilation systems that service the forward
surface ship, machinery space and the submarine test areas. These ventilation
- Collective Protection System (CPS),
- Smoke Ejection System (SES), and
- SHADWELL/ 688 - Ventilation System.
Collective Protection System (CPS)
The Collective Protection System is designed to provide an overpressure
of 0.5 kPa (2 in.) of water for Total Protection (TP) in the forward test
area and Limited Protection (LP) in the machinery space. The TP supply
and exhaust terminals are distributed throughout the forward test area.
There are three supply fans (TPSS (Total Protection Supply System) 1-31-1,
1-31-2, and 01-25-2) and three exhaust fans (TPES (Total Protection Exhaust
System) 1-16-1, 1-16-2, and 1-16-4). Each of the fans has two settings;
on or off. The LP provides supply and exhaust ventilation to the machinery
space. There is one supply fan (LPSS (Limited Protection Supply System)
LPSS 1-33-2 and one exhaust fan ( LPES (Limited Protection Exhaust System
) 1-35-1. Each fan has three settings: high, low, and off.
Smoke Ejection System (SES)
The Smoke Ejection System (SES) consists of ductwork, automatic dampers
and actuators that were added to the existing CPS. The purpose of the
system is to remove smoke from the 2nd deck (DC deck) and the main deck
passageways. SES terminals located in the 2nd deck passageways provide
a high air change rate within the passageways to purge smoke. SES terminals
in the main deck passageways are balanced such that the passageways have
a pressure slightly less than in the CSMC/ Repair 8 area, thus preventing
smoke filtration into that compartment. Ventilation is provided to the
SES using the CPS fans. When operating in SES mode, air is diverted from
the CPS terminals to the SES terminals. As a result, the CPS fans can
operate in either the CPS mode or the SES mode. Data collected during
tests conducted on the ex-USS Shadwell have demonstrated that this system
is capable of restoring visibility to 6.1 m (20 ft) in the DC deck passageways
in 0.5 to 5 minutes when visibility conditions were less than 1.5 m (5
SHADWELL/ 688 -Ventilation System
The SHADWELL/ 688-Ventilation System is designed to simulate the submarine
recirculation, induction, and low-pressure blower systems. The system
includes three fans: exhaust, supply and a low-pressure (LP) blower. The
exhaust fan can also be aligned as an induction fan by isolating the fan
from the exhaust ducting and opening the damper to the induction ducting.
The supply and exhaust fans are variable speed fans and have a maximum
capacity of 11,090 l/s. The LP blower is a single speed fan with a maximum
capacity of 1040 l/s.