Real-Time Tactics Planning Aid for Weapons of Mass Destruction Defense
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Introduction: The Weapons of Mass Destruction Defense (WMDD) Mission Application is a prototype tactical decision and planning aid designed for integration into several Command, Control, Communication, Computer and Intelligence (C4I) Systems.
The WMDD is used to assess hostile nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) weapon attacks and perform course-of-action (COA) analysis and operations planning for WMD defense. It contains embedded simulations that predict propagation and lethality effects of fallout and contamination clouds.
Development Challenge: A serious problem in modern C4I systems is the difficulty of developing simulations within mission applications such as the WMDD. C4I systems are designed primarily to present the military forces a Common Operational Picture (COP) that represents the best assessment of the current situation as close to real time as possible.
Few provisions have been made in C4I to manage simulated (nonreal-time, nonreal-world) data required for time projection and COA analysis. The Navy Modeling and Simulation Management Office (NAVMSMO) recognized the challenge and tasked the Naval Research Laboratory to conduct research into embedded simulation technologies.
C4I Embedded Simulation Infrastructure (ESI) Program: An embedded simulation infrastructure concept was conceived that includes simulation-to-C4I links and modeling and simulation (M&S) extensions to the Common Operational Environment (COE: the software baseline for most modern C4I systems).
M&S Services were developed that are common to a broad range of mission applications. Applications using these services, including Embedded Operator Level Training, the C4I Team Training System (CTTS), and the WMDD described here.
WMDD Operational Requirements: Operational requirements are organized into four categories. Upon completion the WMDD will provide these general functions:
- Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical (NBC) Common Operational Picture (COP)Perform NBC sensor fusion, and source location and analyze downwind contamination effects. Report NBC event alerts, tracks, and plume analysis results to the C4I COP.
- Force ProtectionPerform real-time, wide-area situation assessment and course-of-action analysis to determine proper NBC event responses (avoidance, protection decontamination).
- Zone/Urban Defense Perform high-resolution, zero latency contaminant transport and lethality analysis for urban areas and fixed defensive positions (e.g., bases). Analyze sensor deployments, determine escape routes, and plan decontamination and recovery operations.
- Operations PlanningProvide capabilities for scenario-based planning, WMD defense posture analysis, and strike planning analysis for unintended NBC secondary effects.
Figure 6 shows a contamination plume, calculated from NBC event data, weather information, and terrain data. Analysis is conducted with the embedded Hazard Prediction Assessment Capability (HPAC) simulation, developed by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).
This figure illustrates a simple COA analysis conducted by time-projecting the contamination cloud and ship's path of intended movement (PIM). Mission Editing services allow users to generate and evaluate alternate courses of action to avoid the contamination or determine when to take protective measures.
Mission Editor: The Mission Editor, shown in Fig. 7, permits a ship commander or battle group planner to rapidly synthesize, display, and store dynamic route planning scenarios. The scenarios are entered into the C4I system for evaluation using other analytical tools. Ship and aircraft tracks are defined by their PIM as waypoints. Waypoints define state changes such as bearing or speed changes.
The planned positions can be projected in time for analysis and modified to satisfy mission requirements. The Mission Editor is the first dynamic scenario planning capability fully integrated within COE-based C4I systems; it is also used in training applications.
Host Application Concept: Simulation-based applications within a domain such as planning or training will duplicate many functions, regardless of the specifics of those applications. A large part (e.g., >85%) of software development may be eliminated through the use of common software functions.
Host Applications organize M&S services into shell programs. This approach isolates unique functions to a small percentage of the code, primarily within the embedded simulations. Using well documented M&S services, applications and embedded simulations can be easily developed.
Figure 8 illustrates the architecture for the WMDD Host Application. The COE, shown at the bottom, provides a wide range of common applications and services such as mapping, visualization, data base management, and network services.
The WMDD Application consists of several segments and embedded simulations servers, as shown. The application segments, containing the M&S Services, are clients to the embedded simulations. Currently, two simulations are contained in the WMDA.
M&S Services: The following M&S services support scenario-based applications such as training, planning, and COA analysis.
- Scenario Generation/Planning.
- Plan Preview.
- Virtual Track Management.
- COP Capture.
- Time Base Management.
- Tactical Data Base Access.
- Simulation COP Displays.
These M&S Services have been used in the WMDD and the C4I Team Training System, another Host Application. The M&S Services are being proposed as new COE components for FY03.
Summary: The Weapons of Mass Destruction Defense Application provides needed functionality to C4I. The benefit of the WMDD Host Application design is that it manages system complexity, thereby reducing development effort and maintenance costs. The embedded simulations are generally smaller, containing well defined functions that can be more easily developed and modified.
Acknowledgments: WMDD software developers are Dan Robinson, Brenda Weber and Nam Le. Participants in the ESI Program include Dennis McGroder, Trinh Nguyenphan, Jennie Womble, John Daly and Peter Kunkel.
[Sponsored by NAVSMO]