Description: The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has developed a suite of processes for the fabrication of bulk and sputtered thin film copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) and related materials for photovoltaic (PV) applications. These processes result in films with better uniformity over large areas than existing techniques such as evaporation. The technology developed at NRL permits the fabrication of high purity bulk samples with a large range of compositions which are then converted into targets that can be sputtered to make films with optimum properties for PV applications, ultimately resulting in a more efficient solar cell. These NRL technologies permit optimized PV films to be deposited in a single deposition step with a high degree of uniformity and control over film composition.

Advantages/Features Include:

  • Well-established fabrication method (sputtering) that produces uniform, large-area coatings
  • Allows for targets and films with a large range of compositions, even non-stoichiometric
  • High material utilization
  • Eliminates need for processing with highly toxic chemicals (H2Se gas, potassium cyanide)

Applications Include:

  • High-efficiency thin film photovoltaics
  • Flexible photovoltaics

References

  • "Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films and Devices Sputtered from a Single Target Without Additional Selenization," Thin Solid Films 519 (2011) 7763-7765.
  • "Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films and Devices Sputtered from a Single Target Without Additional Selenization," 37th IEEE PVSC (2011).

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