VXS-1 (formerly known as the NRL Flight Support Detachment) and the NRL Military Support Division provide airborne research platforms for the Naval Research Laboratory, the United States Navy, U.S. Government, and its contract agencies.

Located onboard NRL in Washington, DC, the Military Support Division (Code 1400) is responsible for the scheduling, planning, and payment processing of airborne projects. Additionally, all military administration for the Laboratory is handled by the division.

Located onboard Naval Air Station, Patuxent River, MD, VXS-1 (Code 1600) maintains a fleet of five uniquely-configured, research-modified NP-3D Orion aircraft, two RC-12s, one MZ-3A airship, and numerous ScanEagle UAVs. VXS-1 is primarily responsible for the planning, engineering, installation, coordination, and execution of airborne Science and Technology projects. The squadron also maintains the training, qualifications, and proficiency of all assigned military personnel, government civilians, contractors, and project specialists as well as the maintenance of the research aircraft. Committed to safety, VXS-1 has logged over 71,000 flight hours and completed over 49 years of accident free flying.