NRL has a long history of distinguished contributions to military science and technology and its transition to practical application. Few institutions, public or private, can match NRL's sustained record of achievement. One mark of these accomplishments is through recognition from organizations outside of NRL.

Milestone awards to the Laboratory or its employees include the Nobel Prize in Chemistry from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1985. The Nobel Prize was awarded to Dr. Jerome Karle, Chief Scientist of NRL's Laboratory for the Structure of Matter, for "outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures." In 1994, Mrs. Karle, whose research has had a profound effect of the practice of organic and biological chemistry, was the first woman to receive the Bower Award and Prize for Achievement in Science from the Franklin Institute for her "pioneering contributions in determining the 3-D structure of molecules" and her definitive introduction of "the symbolic addition method to reveal molecular structure directly from x-ray studies."

Dr. Isabella Karle is also a recipient of the President's National Medal of Science (1995) and Dr. Jerome Karle is a recipient of the President's Award for Distinguished Federal Service (1996).

NRL has been recognized for extraordinary scientific contributions to the security of the country with the Roosevelts Gold Medal and Laboratory management has been awarded for contributions to technology transfer for economic development.

Achievements in space research have also earned the Laboratory special recognition. For his pioneering work in rocket and satellite astronomy and gamma-ray astronomy, Dr. Herbert Friedman was also a recipient of the President's National Medal of Science, as well as the President's Award for Distinguished Federal Service.

Roger Easton received the National Medal of Technology for his extensive pioneering achievements in spacecraft tracking, navigation and timing technology that led to the development of the NAVSTAR-Global Positioning System (GPS).

And in what has been termed the "Oscars" of space achievement awards, NRL was honored with the National Aeronautic Association's 1992 Collier Award for GPS invention, which cited NRL's Mr. Peter Wilhelm and Mr. Roger Easton for "the most significant development for safe and efficient navigation and surveillance of air and spacecraft since the introduction of radio navigation 50 years ago."

NRL scientists and engineers serve as national advisors to the Government in scientific and technical matters. Past and present members of the National Academy of Science include Dr. Herbert Friedman, Dr. Isabella L. Karle, Dr. Jerome Karle, Dr. Judith Lean, and Dr. Richard Tousey. National Academy of Engineering members are Dr. Thomas G. Giallorenzi, Dr. Frances Ligler, Dr. Elaine Oran, Dr. Merrill Skolnik, Mr. Peter Wilhelm, Dr. Bhakta Rath, and Dr. Jay Boris.

Many NRL researchers have earned the distinction of Fellow in prestigious organizations within their respective fields. They have been honored with meritorious achievement awards and scientific awards within the Navy and our own organization that are too numerous to list. Other noteworthy recognitions are available by year.