The National Medal of Science, established by Congress in 1959 as a Presidential award, has recognized America's leading scientists and engineers. The evaluation criteria is based on the total impact an individual's work has had on the present state of physical, chemical, biological, mathematical, engineering, behavioral or social sciences.
1995 — Dr. Isabella Karle, "for the development and application of a method for determining essentially equal-atom crystal and molecular structures by x-ray analysis, thereby having a profound effect on the practice of organic and biological chemistry." Awarded by President Clinton at a White House ceremony on October 18, 1995.
1968 — Dr. Herbert Friedman, "for pioneering work in rocket and satellite astronomy and in particular for his contributions to the field of X-ray astronomy." Presented by President Johnson at a White House ceremony on January 17, 1969.
The National Medal of Technology, established by Congress in 1980 as part of the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Act as a Presidential award, has recognized individuals and companies whose accomplishments have generated jobs and created a better standard of living. Their accomplishments best embody technological innovation and support the advancement of global U.S. competitiveness.
2013 — Dr. George Carruthers, “for invention of the Far UV Electrographic Camera, which significantly improved our understanding of space and earth science.
In 1972, Dr. Carruthers' Far Ultraviolet Camera Spectrograph, the first moon-based space observatory, was sent to the moon with the Apollo 16 mission. This 50-lb., gold-plated camera system allowed researchers to take readings of and understand objects and elements in space that are unrecognizable to the naked eye and gave them views of stars and the solar systems thousands of miles away. His NRL camera still sits on the surface of the moon. Awarded by President Obama at a White House ceremony on February 1, 2013.
2004 — Mr. Roger Easton, "for his invention of the Minitrack satellite tracking system used to track Vanguard satellites and determine orbits; his development of the Naval Space Surveillance System still in use today cataloging all known man-made space objects orbiting Earth; his invention of a "Navigation System Using Satellites and Passive Ranging Techniques" and his subsequent development of Time Navigation and Navigation Technology Satellites that formed the technological basis for modern GPS." Announced by the White House on November 14, 2005.
Easton, the former head of NRL's Space Applications Branch, Space Systems Division, retired from NRL and Federal Service in 1980, and later served as a consultant to NRL to conduct assessment of industry proposals for upgrading the Naval Space Surveillance System and to explore his concept for improving GPS geo-locational accuracy from 1994 to 2000.