VXS-1, located at NAS Patuxent River, MD, operates and maintains a fleet of five uniquely configured, research modified NP-3D Orion aircraft. In addition, VXS-1 has acquired two RC-12s to support smaller projects. The men and women of the squadron provide the Naval Research Laboratory with airborne research platforms, conducting flight operations worldwide in support of a wide spectrum of projects and experiments. These include: magnetic variation mapping, hydro-acoustic research, bathymetry, electronic countermeasures, gravity mapping, and radar research. The detachment annually logs approximately 1,600 flight hours and in its 49 years, VXS-1 has amassed over 71,000 hours of accident-free flying.

Code 1600: The Commanding Officer (CO) of VXS-1 is responsible for setting policy and managing the daily activities of the squadron.

Code 1601: The Executive Officer (XO) is the direct representative of the VXS-1 CO in maintaining the general efficiency of the squadron. The XO also coordinates all squadron project work, inspections, administration, and manning/personnel.

Code 1630: The VXS-1 Operations Office interacts directly with the NRL Military Support Division to accomplish the scheduling, planning and establishment of long term goals for VXS-1 operations. Additionally, they also track aircrew qualifications, publish the daily flight schedule, ensure aircrew proficiency, and interact with Code 1650 to ensure optimal use of aircraft assets assigned.

Code 1640: The VXS-1 Administration office interfaces directly with the NRL Military Administration Branch for the processing of military records, awards processing, training, travel, and Per Diem issues for the assigned military personnel. Additionally, they work for the CO for the promulgation of all policies, instructions, and notices for VXS-1.

Code 1650: The VXS-1 Maintenance Office is responsible for the maintenance, record keeping, reporting, and management of the five assigned research modified NP-3D aircraft. Additionally, they work with the Military Support Division for the scheduling of aircraft, long term maintenance planning, and required maintenance inspections.

Projects Office: The VXS-1 Projects office acts as a liaison between project scientists, VXS-1 Maintenance, and VXS-1 Operations. They are responsible for determining project equipment requirements, arranging for flight clearances, installation and testing of project equipment, and equipment removal at the completion of the project.