Founded July 2, 1923, the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is a scientific and engineering command dedicated to research that drives innovative advances for the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Marine Corps. NRL is the Department of the Navy‘s corporate laboratory and reports to the Chief of Naval Research. As the Navy's corporate laboratory, NRL is the principal in-house component in the Office of Naval Research’s (ONR) effort to meet its science and technology responsibilities. NRL has had a long and fruitful relationship with industry as a collaborator, contractor, and through Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs). NRL values this linkage and continues to develop it. NRL is an important link in the Navy Research, Development, and Acquisition (RD&A) chain. Through NRL, the Navy has direct ties with sources of fundamental ideas in industry and the academic community throughout the world and provides an effective coupling point to the R&D chain for ONR. NRL is a Navy Working Capital Fund activity, which means it is not a line-item in the U.S. Federal Budget. Instead of direct funding from Congress, all costs, including overhead, are redeemed through sponsor-funded research projects. Funding sources include the Chief of Naval Research, Naval Systems Commands, and other government agencies, such as the U.S. Air Force, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the Department of Energy (DOE), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as well as several nongovernment activities.