The NRL Military Support Division and Scientific Development Squadron (VXS) 1 provide airborne research platforms for the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, the United States Navy, U.S. Government and its contracting agencies.

Located onboard NRL in Washington, DC, the Military Support Division (Code 1400) is responsible for the scheduling, planning, and payment processing of airborne projects. Additionally, all military administration for the Laboratory is handled by the division.

Located onboard Naval Air Station, Patuxent River, Maryland, VXS-1 (Code 1600) maintains a fleet of two uniquely configured, research-modified NP-3C Orion aircraft, an RC-12 King Air, a UV-18 Twin Otter, and numerous TigerShark Unmanned Aircraft Systems. VXS-1 is primarily responsible for the planning, engineering, installation, coordination, and execution of airborne science and technology projects. The squadron also maintains the training, qualifications and proficiency of all assigned military personnel, government civilians, contractors, and project specialists as well as the maintenance of the research aircraft. Committed to safety, VXS-1 has logged over 77,000 hours of accident-free flying since 1963.