Fundamental and applied research is directed toward the growth and surface chemistry of advanced materials, the spectroscopy of species at or near interfaces and the molecular/structural/electronic characterization and modification of surfaces and solid-gas interfaces. A principle focus is on non-intrusive techniques such as non-linear optical spectroscopies using pulsed dye lasers, absorption/emission Fourier Transform IR (FTIR), Surface Raman, micro-Raman, IR reflection absorption (IRRAS), IR attenuated internal reflection (ATR), and multichannel optical spectroscopies. These are complemented by access to Ultra High Vacuum Surface Spectroscopies: High Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (HREELS), Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), scanning Auger microscopy (SAM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Reverse View Low Energy Electron Diffraction (RVLEED), Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD), Kelvin probe, colinear four point probe, and Residual Gas Analysis (RGA). Besides characterizing surface/interface phenomena, considerable attention is paid to modifying such surfaces to achieve desired physical/chemical/electrical properties. To this end, techniques involving Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), high temperature environments, photon assisted processes, and plasma processing and plasma deposition/etching are applied. Such modified surfaces/interfaces impact a broad array of DOD-related problems including plasma modification, processing electronic devices, protective coatings, corrosion, and synthetic metastable materials.

Selected Publications

2008 Butler, J. E., and I. Oleynik, "A Mechanism for Crystal Twinning in the Growth of Diamond by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)", Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, vol. 366, issue 1863, pp. 295-311, 2008.
2008 Eaton-Magana, S., J. E. Post, P. J. Heaney, J. Freitas, P. Klein, R. Walters, and J. E. Butler, "Using Phosphorescence as a Fingerprint for the Hope and Other Blue Diamonds", Geology, vol. 36, pp. 83-86, 2008.
2008 Butler, J. E., and A. V. Sumant, "The CVD of Nanodiamond Materials", Chemical Vapor Deposition, vol. 14, issue 7-8, pp. 145-160, 2008.
2008 Mildren, R. P., J. E. Butler, and J. R. Rabeau, "CVD-Diamond External Cavity Raman Laser at 573nm", Optics Express, vol. 16, issue 23, pp. 18950-18955, 2008.
2007 Sun, B., S. E. Baker, J. E. Butler, H. Kim, J. N. Russell, Jr, L. Shang, K-Y. Tse, W. Yang, and R. J. Hamers, "Covalent molecular functionalization of diamond thin-film transistors", Diamond and Related Materials, vol. 16, issue 8, pp. 1608-1615, 2007.
2006 S Y Hsu, D., and J. L. Shaw, "1 Ampere/cm2 current density from micro-gated carbon nanotube field emitter arrays grown by dc plasma chemical vapor deposition", Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, vol. 24, 2006.
2006 Nichols, B. M., K. M. Metz, K-Y. Tse, J. E. Butler, J. N. Russell, Jr, and R. J. Hamers, "Electrical bias dependant photochemical functionalization of diamond surfaces", Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 24, issue 110, pp. 16535-16543, 2006.
2006 Baldwin, J. W., M. K. Zalalutdinov, T. Feygelson, B. B. Pate, J. E. Butler, and B. H. Houston, "Nanocrystalline diamond resonator array for RF signal processing", Diamond and Related Materials, vol. 15, issue 11-12, pp. 2061-2067, 2006.
2006 Metcalf, T. H., X. Liu, B. H. Houston, J. E. Butler, and T. Feygelson, "Role of film-substrate interface in the internal friction of nanocrystalline diamond films", Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 442, issue 1, pp. 332-335, 2006.