Damage Control Systems
The ex-USS Shadwell is outfitted with all of the DC systems and equipment that would be expected on a modern surface combatant or submarine. The following provides an overview of the DC systems that are currently available.
Damage Control Repair Stations
The ex-USS Shadwell has three designated damage control repair stations (DCRS’s). Repair 2 and Repair 3 are located in and service the forward surface ship test area and Repair 4 is located in and services the submarine test area. Each DCRS has a designated Repair Locker that is outfitted with standard U.S. Navy’s DC equipment, a Wire Free Communication (WIFCOM) station, and a Damage Control System (DCS) computer work station. Selected DC equipment is also distributed throughout the DCRS test areas (i.e., portable smoke control equipment, portable fire extinguishers, Oxygen Breathing Apparatus (OBA’s), Self-contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA’s), portable dewatering equipment, forcible entry tools and personnel protection equipment such as fire fighting ensembles (FFE’s), helmets, fire fighting boots, gloves and flash gear). A DC Central (DCC) control station, which is used to receive and evaluate DC information during "active" Fleet Doctrine Evaluation (FDE) tests, is located on the port side of the 01 level between FR 47 and FR 50 (aft portion of the Crew Mess). The DCC control station is also outfitted with an intelligent Supervisory Control System (SCS) for displaying DC sensor information, pre-hit/ damage predictions, video, automated decision aids, and for automatic and remote control of various DC systems.
The ex-USS Shadwell fire main system consists of a 8.9-cm (3.5-in.) horizontal loop main with two electric driven fire pumps. The fire main services the distributed fireplugs located throughout the ship. A supplemental test fire main is located in the forward test area with a configuration similar to that of a DDG 51 Class ship. This fire main includes two 10.2-cm (4-in.) offset mains on the port and starboard sides of the main and 2nd decks. Cross connects are located at FR 12 and FR 23. The test fire main is outfitted with seventeen isolation valves. Eight of these valves are autonomous smart valves that enable an automated isolation response to system damage. A LonWorks network is used to receive data from instruments and control the valves and pumps.
Portable Fire Fighting Equipment
Fire main related fire fighting equipment and portable extinguishers are located throughout the test areas. Fire main related fire fighting (or boundary cooling) equipment includes fire plugs, 1.9-cm (0.75-in.) hose reels, and 3.8-cm (1.5 in.) AFFF hose reels. Fire plugs (3.8-cm (1.5 in.)) are installed such that every part of the test areas can be serviced by two fire plugs using no more than 30 m (100 ft) of fire hose from each plug. The AFFF hose reels are positioned outside the 3rd deck entrance to AMR No. 1 and the hold level entrance to the escape trunk, between FR 27 and FR 28, for use in manual fire fighting activities in AMR No. 1. Portable fire extinguishers are also distributed throughout the test areas and primarily consist of CO2, PKP and AFFF extinguishers.
Water Mist Suppression System
The ex-USS Shadwell is presently outfitted with two high-pressure (68-bar (1000 psi)) water mist suppression systems. One of these systems (designated as the Machinery Space Water Mist system) was installed in AMR No.1 and MMR No. 1 as part of the developmental work for LPD 17. The second system (designated as the forward water mist system) services the forward test area on the main, 2nd and 3rd decks.
The Machinery Space water mist system consists of two zones with nozzles in the overhead of the 4th deck and hold level. The water mist system utilizes one electric driven pump that is rated for 833 lpm at 68 bar (220 gpm at 1000 psi) and is located in the ex-USS Shadwell starboard engine room, between FR 64 to 74 on the 4th deck. The system is controlled from a console in the ex-USS Shadwell control room or from three local control stations that are located on the third deck entranceway to AMR No. 1, in the Engineering Operating Control Station (EOCS), or on lower level of the AMR escape trunk. The nozzles for the Machinery Space water mist system are an open (deluge) type, that consist of a Spraying Systems Model 7N nozzle body containing seven Model 1/4 LN orifice cap assemblies (orifice cap and orifice insert).
The forward water mist system has been constructed using the sectional loop architecture. A pump unit (consisting of multiple low flow pumps) has been installed on the 4th deck at FR 16 and is also rated at 833 lpm at 68-bar (220 gpm at 1000 psi). The pump system has the ability to adjust continuously to meet a range of flow demands. The pump unit supplies water to the mains that in turn feed branches of nozzles. An electrically actuated solenoid valve that is connected to one of the two node rooms on the second deck, where a computer interface is established, controls each branch group of nozzles. As with the Machinery Space water mist system, the forward water mist system nozzles are an open (deluge) type nozzle.
The ship’s general heating, ventilation and air conditioning system and direct current fans provide hotel ventilation service. The direct current fans are also used for combustion air in some fire experiments. There are three additional ventilation systems that service the forward surface ship, machinery space and the submarine test areas. These ventilation systems include:
- Collective Protection System (CPS),
- Smoke Ejection System (SES), and
- SHADWELL/688 - Ventilation System.
Collective Protection System (CPS)
The Collective Protection System is designed to provide an overpressure of 0.5 kPa (2 in.) of water for Total Protection (TP) in the forward test area and Limited Protection (LP) in the machinery space. The TP supply and exhaust terminals are distributed throughout the forward test area. There are three supply fans (TPSS (Total Protection Supply System) 1-31-1, 1-31-2, and 01-25-2) and three exhaust fans (TPES (Total Protection Exhaust System) 1-16-1, 1-16-2, and 1-16-4). Each of the fans has two settings; on or off. The LP provides supply and exhaust ventilation to the machinery space. There is one supply fan (LPSS (Limited Protection Supply System) LPSS 1-33-2 and one exhaust fan ( LPES (Limited Protection Exhaust System ) 1-35-1. Each fan has three settings: high, low, and off.
Smoke Ejection System (SES)
The Smoke Ejection System (SES) consists of ductwork, automatic dampers and actuators that were added to the existing CPS. The purpose of the system is to remove smoke from the 2nd deck (DC deck) and the main deck passageways. SES terminals located in the 2nd deck passageways provide a high air change rate within the passageways to purge smoke. SES terminals in the main deck passageways are balanced such that the passageways have a pressure slightly less than in the CSMC/ Repair 8 area, thus preventing smoke filtration into that compartment. Ventilation is provided to the SES using the CPS fans. When operating in SES mode, air is diverted from the CPS terminals to the SES terminals. As a result, the CPS fans can operate in either the CPS mode or the SES mode. Data collected during tests conducted on the ex-USS Shadwell have demonstrated that this system is capable of restoring visibility to 6.1 m (20 ft) in the DC deck passageways in 0.5 to 5 minutes when visibility conditions were less than 1.5 m (5 ft).
SHADWELL/688 -Ventilation System
The SHADWELL/688-Ventilation System is designed to simulate the submarine recirculation, induction, and low-pressure blower systems. The system includes three fans: exhaust, supply and a low-pressure (LP) blower. The exhaust fan can also be aligned as an induction fan by isolating the fan from the exhaust ducting and opening the damper to the induction ducting. The supply and exhaust fans are variable speed fans and have a maximum capacity of 11,090 l/s. The LP blower is a single speed fan with a maximum capacity of 1040 l/s.
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