|Title||Choosing frames of reference: Perspective-taking in a 2D and 3D navigational task|
|Publication Type||Conference Paper|
|Year of Publication||2004|
|Authors||Mintz, FE, Trafton, JG, Marsh, E, Perzanowski, D|
|Conference Name||Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society|
|Conference Location||New Orleans|
This study investigates how frames of reference are chosen in a dynamic navigational task. Participants issued verbal instructions to an animated robot and were provided with one of three views for navigating the animated robot around a virtual world. The different views included a flat two-dimensional (2D) North-up map, a three-dimensional (3D) robot’s eye view of the world, and a 3D view from behind the robot (3D-Camera) in which depth cues were manipulated. Our results show people adopt an egocentric frame of reference when depth cues are salient and an exocentric reference frame when depth cues are absent. The results suggest the absence or presence of depth cues is a critical component in choosing a reference frame. We discuss the extension of Bryant and Tversky’s (1999) theoretical framework to a dynamic environment, such as navigation.
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