"Quantum Information Science (QIS) builds on quantum mechanics and information theory to explore the fundamental limits for computation, communication, and measurement. Advantages and protocols for measuring signals with quantum systems, i.e., quantum sensing, and novel solutions for quantum computing and quantum networking are topics investigated in QIS. The beginning of research into QIS can be traced to theoretical phycisist Richard Feynman, Ph.D. In 1982 he proposed that computers that take advantage of quantum mechanical principles may have certain advantages over classical computers. Since then, researchers have proposed or demonstrated various methods of using quantum information to achieve results that cannot be obtained with classical physics. One of the most striking proposals is the quantum computer itself. Using an algorithm developed by MIT professor of applied mathematics, Peter Shor, to find prime factors of large numbers, quantum computers can, in principle, defeat current cryptography techniques. Although practical quantum computers currently do not exist, work is under way in many countries to create such a computer. Furthermore, current classically encrypted information can be stored for now and kept until decryption by quantum computers someday becomes possible.